Sport Supplements LLC
The Right Products for the Right You!
Sport Supplements LLC
The Right Products for the Right You!
1.        The fact or power of enduring or bearing pain, hardships, etc.

2.        The ability or strength to continue or last, esp. Despite fatigue, stress, or other adverse conditions; stamina:         

3.        Lasting quality; duration:
4.        Something endured, as a hardship; trial.


Main Entry: ath·lete
Pronunciation:
Function: noun
Etymology: Middle English, from Latin athleta, from Greek athletes, from athlein to contend for a prize, from athlon prize, contest
: a person who is trained or skilled in exercises, sports, or games requiring physical strength, agility, or stamina
Athletes, by their very nature, constantly seek to improve their performance. They know training is the most effective way to excel, but they also know it is the
hardest. The search for an extra edge makes nearly any purported performance booster alluring. There are plenty of ergogenics—substances that promise to
improve physical performance—on the market to tempt both weekend warriors and competitive athletes.
Ergogenics, through a variety of mechanisms, improve strength and endurance. They are typically used by endurance athletes who participate in sports that
last more than three hours. Marathoner's, ultramarathoners, triathletes and stage bicycle racers fall into this category. This information will help you explain
to customers which supplements are scientifically proven to help increase endurance and which ones are still at the starting line.
Branched Chain Amino Acids (BCAAs), including leucine, isoleucine and valine, are essential to aerobic metabolism. During aerobic activity, BCAA levels
decrease as they are taken up by skeletal muscle, causing the ratio of serum BCAAs to tryptophan to skew in favor of tryptophan, an amino acid that
contributes to serotonin formation. Increased serotonin production during exercise enhances the perception of fatigue, but maintaining adequate BCAA levels
in the bloodstream keeps serotonin production in check. BCAA decline parallels the onset of fatigue and may decrease efficiency of glycogen metabolism, the
breakdown of stored sugar.1 Simply put, lower levels of BCAAs mean less available fuel; more tryptophan means more perceived fatigue.
Edward Blomstrand, Ph.D., of Research Laboratories, Stockholm, Sweden, observed seven trained cyclists given one 3-g dose of BCAAs. The athletes, who had
exercised to exhaustion the night before to produce low levels of muscle glycogen, exercised for an hour. During the activity they were given either BCAAs
or placebo. The group taking BCAAs perceived less exertion than the placebo group. Physical performance was the same for both groups.2
These results are consistent with other studies that have shown BCAAs tend to reduce perceived exertion but do not affect actual performance in events
lasting less than three hours.3

Water itself is an endurance aid, and sound hydration strategies are essential in long events.
Glycerol is a 3-carbon nonintoxicating alcohol. It is a product of triacylglycerol (free fatty acids), which is used in the body's citric acid cycle of aerobic
energy metabolism. Glycerol increases water in muscles, enhancing hydration. Eight athletes supplementing with 1 g glycerol/kg body weight were able to
increase their total body water by nearly 1 L—about 2.5 percent—which helped them adapt to heat during prolonged exercise.16
Although this phenomenon has been demonstrated in only a small number of studies, the benefits have been consistent, especially in hot weather.17 For
example, researchers at the Department of Medicine, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Albuquerque, N.M., studied the effects of glycerol on the hydration and
performance of 11 athletes exercising in the heat. Before riding to exhaustion, they were given 1.2 g/kg glycerol or placebo. During the same levels of
intensity, those given glycerol showed lower heart rates than those given placebo. Elevated heart rate is a marker of poor hydration. Additionally, the riders
given glycerol ran longer before exhaustion.18
During events lasting longer than three hours, glycerol replacement during exercise may also be of benefit. In addition to taking straight glycerol, athletes
may choose from several hydration formulas that now contain this ingredient. At effective dosages, straight glycerol is more economical than formulas.
Phosphate and bicarbonate salts are the body's main pH buffers. Fatigue is related to a decline in muscle pH, which also inhibits aerobic and anaerobic energy
production. Based on this, scientists have theorized that buffering metabolic acids with phosphate might enhance endurance and help maintain hydration.
In a double-blind study, researchers evaluated the effects of phosphate loading (4-60 g/day) on the performance of six trained triatheletes. They took either 4
g/day of sodium phosphate in four divided doses or placebo for three days before performing both maximal cycling tests and a 40-kilometer time trial. They
continued the doses for an extra day and were retested to evaluate recovery. All tests were repeated after a 17-day washout period. Phosphate enhanced
cycling endurance and raised aerobic threshold (maximum level of intensity at metabolic efficiency).19
Considering the low cost of sodium phosphate solution, its lack of side effects and proven efficacy, it is a worthwhile ergogenic for endurance

As discussed, hydration is one of the most critical variables that endurance athletes can control. The longer the event and the hotter the day, the more
important it is. To improve hydration, athletes can load for one week with 2 oz glycerol and 1 oz phosphate daily. During events longer than three hours,
athletes should take fluid replacement formulas that contain glycerol. Until more is known, the most effective ergogenic will remain diligent training.

Endurance training is the deliberate act of exercising to increase stamina and endurance. Exercises for endurance tends to be aerobic in nature versus
anaerobic movements. Aerobic exercise develops slow twitch muscles. Performing these exercises strengthens and elongates the muscles for preparation of
extended periods of use.
Athletes train for endurance to compete in 5k and 10k races, marathons, ultra marathons, triathlons, Ironmans, Century bike rides, mountain biking and so on.
Non-athletes can train similarly with an aerobic workout to burn calories and fat. It is known that long distance training (LDT) for endurance over long
periods of time can be harmful to joints and ligaments.
Long term endurance training induces many physiological adaptations both centrally and peripherally mediated. Central cardiovascular adaptations include
decreased heart rate, increased red blood cell count, increased blood plasma which reduces blood viscosity and increased cardiac output. Adaptations of the
peripheral include capilarisation, that is an increase in the surface area that both the venous and arterial capillaries supply. This also allows for increased heat
dissipation during strenuous exercise. The muscles heighten their glycogen and fat storing capabilities in endurance athletes in order to increase the length
in time in which they can perform work
Each Month Sport Supplements will bring you one of the 10 biggest mistakes that Endurance Athletes make

The 1st biggest mistake
To little or to much Hydration; For optimal  nutritional support for an endurance athlete means consuming the right amount of nutrients at the right time.  
Over hydration is as bad as under hydration.
So the question is how much should on drink to stay hydrated to the proper level?
One expert, Dr Ian Rogers  suggests (about 17-25 fluid oz per hour) will fulfill most athletes hydration  requirements under most conditions Like most things
in life balance is the key. One other thing to consider is electrolyte replacement.
You may never bike across the desert in summer but it does’nt take long to prove that electrolytes are as vital to your energy supply. Here is a good way to
think of electrolytes.
They are to your body what motor oil is to a car won’t make it run but absolutely necessary to keep everything running smoothly.proper function for
muscular ,digestive ,nervous and cardiac systems depend on adequate electrolyte levels.

Next month ,Simple sugar consumption. For a better race!!

For questions you can email
sport_supplements@yahoo.com
Attention  Bill